Understanding the Climate Challenge

This domain covers three areas: Science of Climate Change, Global Impact and Response, Standards and Measurements. It aims to inform non-executive directors of the scale and urgency of the climate challenge and the actions taken nationally and internationally. It contains reports and discussions about the IPCC report summarising over 6,000 studies on the science of climate change and the changes needed by the global energy sector to reach net-zero by 2050. It curates reports about the climate risk in Asia and the response so far, such as Singapore's Green Plan 2030 that will impact many if not all sectors in the country. It also contains reports about standards and measurements to inform non-executives on the targets and metrics commonly used to track progress and set mid and long-term goals to start the journey towards a decarbonized economy. 

Understanding the Climate Challenge is the topic chosen for the launch and first seminar of the Climate Governance Singapore in October 2021. 

*For essential reading

climate-icon  Science of Climate Change

*World Global warming of 1.5°C
In this special report, the broad scientific community addresses the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways. It presents the findings of more than 6,000 published articles on the topic.
IPCC, 2018 
*Asia Climate Risk and Response in Asia
This report provides an overview of the climate hazards in Asia to improve the understanding of physical risks and their socio-economic impact in the region.
MGI, 2020
World Climate Risk and Response: Physical Hazards and Socioeconomic Impacts
This report explores the mechanisms through which physical climate change leads to socio-economic risks to inform leaders on how to better assess, adapt to, and mitigate those risks.
MGI, 2020
World Vision 2050
This report addresses three questions: What does a sustainable world look like? How can we realise it? What are the roles businesses can play in ensuring more rapid progress toward that world?
WBCSD, 2021
World This is a Crisis: Facing Up to the Age of Environmental Breakdown
This report discusses the scale, pace and implications of climate change. It discusses the response so far and the need for further transformative change.
IPPR, 2019
World The Science of Climate Change Explained Facts, Evidence and Proof
This article provides science-based answers to 12 big questions about Climate Change.
NYT, 2021

climate-icon  Global Impact and Response

*World Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector
This report maps out how the global energy sector can reach net zero by 2050 with the involvement of all stakeholders – governments, businesses, investors and citizens.
IEA, 2021
*World Unlocking the Inclusive Growth Story of the 21st Century: Accelerating Climate Action in Urgent Times
This report is a roadmap for accelerating action to turn better growth and a better climate into reality.
NCE, 2018
*Singapore Charting Singapore’s Low-carbon and Climate Resilient Future
This document discusses the Singaporean response to Climate Change and a low-carbon future.
NCCS, 2020
World TPI State of Transition Report 2021
This report reviews the progress made by the world’s highest-emitting public companies on the transition to a low-carbon economy.
TPI, 2021
World Climate Change Challenges: Climate Change Scenarios and Their Impact on Funding Risk and Asset Allocation
This report considers four alternative scenarios (from no mitigation to smooth transition to a green economy) and their potential impact on assets and pension scheme funding levels.
Aon, 2018
Singapore Singapore’s Fourth Biennial Update Report
The report summarises the progress we have made as a nation to address climate change and meet our obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
NEA, 2020
World The 1.5°C Global Warming Limit Is Not Impossible – But Without Political Action It Soon Will Be
This article discusses the feasibility of climate control and the level of commitment needed.
The Conversation, 2021
World The Global Risks Report 2021 (16th Edition)
Our analysis centers on the risks and consequences of widening inequalities, societal fragmentation and climate change.
WEF, 2021
World Fragile Planet 2021 - Scoring Climate Risks: Who Is the Most Resilient?
The report ranks 77 countries on their ability to shift from fossil fuels, adapt to climate change and profit from cleantech, adding 12 indicators to this year’s analysis.
HSBC Global Research, 2021

climate-icon  Standards and Metrics

*World Proposed Guidance on Climate-related, Metrics, Targets, and Transition Plans
This report provides general guidance for organizations seeking to establish relevant metrics, targets, and transition plans around their climate-related risks and opportunities.
TCFD, 2021
*Singapore Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Measurement and Reporting Guidelines:

Part 1a: Introduction to the GHG Measurement and Reporting Requirements for the Reportable Facility
Part 1b: Introduction to the GHG Measurement and Reporting Requirements for the Taxable Facility
Part 2: Appendix to Part II: Monitoring Plan
Part 3: Introduction to the Emissions Report
The guidelines cover the implementation of the M&R requirements, compliance requirements relating to the M&R of GHG emissions, and the Monitoring Plan and Emissions Report preparation. More information here: https://www.nea.gov.sg/our-services/climate-change-energy-efficiency/climate-change/carbon-tax/measurement-and-reporting-requirements-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions

NEA, 2021
World The Big eBook of Sustainability Reporting Frameworks 2021
This eBook will guide you through the world of sustainability reporting frameworks.
ecoact, 2021
World Measuring Stakeholder Capitalism Towards Common Metrics and Consistent Reporting of Sustainable Value Creation (White Paper)
The document identifies a set of universal, material ESG metrics and recommended disclosures to be reflected in the mainstream annual reports of companies consistently across industry sectors and countries.
WEF, 2020
World Driving Alignment in Climate-related Reporting: Year One of the Better Alignment Project
The results presented in this report can benefit and assist preparers in making adequate climate-related financial disclosures through the use of several frameworks and standards.
CRD, 2019
World Measuring Portfolio Alignment: Technical Supplement
This report provides a critical assessment of the strengths and trade-offs of the options available when using forward-looking metrics to measure the alignment of financial portfolios with climate goals.
TCFD, 2021
World Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures - 2020 Status Report
The annual report describes the alignment of companies’ reporting with the TCFD recommendations.
TCFD, 2020
World Institute Briefing – From Promise to Action: Decoding Climate Disclosure
This report explains the current state of this field, detailing three stages companies must go through to develop high-quality disclosures and explaining how to approach each stage.
The SustainAbility Institute by ERM, 2021